First Computer is world was developed before world war II.
The birth of an electronic computer
Computers in the modern sense have developed rapidly just before and during World War II. In the process, electronic circuits replaced mechanical computing devices, and digital circuits replaced analog circuits. It’s not easy to determine what the “first computer” is because these changes have been made little by little over the years.
The development of early computers during World War II and before and after World War II can be roughly divided into three streams.
The first trend is the study of German engineer Konrad Chusze, whose research has long been forgotten in the United States. The second stream is the British Colossus computer but has been kept secret for decades for military reasons. Thus, the previous two trends did not affect US research. George Steitz of Bell Labs, who introduced the binary system to electronic calculators. Which is also known as one of the fathers of modern electronic computers.
In 1936, an independent researcher from Germany, Konrad Chusze, began developing the Z series of calculators with limited programming capabilities and memory. The first work of the Z series is the Z1, which was completed in 1938, and it worked in binary. But it was mechanical, and it didn’t work exactly because of the precision of the parts.
The successor, the Z3, was completed in 1941 using telephone exchanger parts. The Z3 became the first programmable digital computer. The Z3 is similar in many ways to modern computers and has made great progress in floating-point arithmetic. It is designed to be simpler and more reliable by discarding the decimal operation (decimal method was used in the design of the garbage), which is difficult to implement.
The Z3 was presumed not to be a Turing machine at first because of no conditional branching, but in the 1990s it was proved that the Z3 was a Turing machine. The Plancalquill was implemented by a research team at the Free University of Berlin in 2000, five years after the exile.
World First Computer In the study of the repatriation retreated briefly as part of the machine was lost in the Allied bombing during World War II. It was known about his work in the United Kingdom and the United States.
IBM is believed to have known about his research and sponsored a company founded by Chu Chu on the condition of obtaining some of his patents in 1946, shortly after the war.
During World War II, Blechili Park (nickname of the British Government Cryptographic Research Institute) succeeded in deciphering the German military cryptosystem. Enigma, a German cryptographic typewriter, was decrypted with the help of an electromechanical calculator “bombe”. The bombe, designed by Polish mathematician Marian Reuzsky and electronically improved by Alan Turing and Gordon Welchman. It has been used in cryptocurrency since 1941.
Another German typewriter series, the Lorenz SZ 40/42 series, differed from Enigma in many ways. To decipher this cryptosystem, Professor Max Newman and colleagues designed the Colossus computer. Tommy Flowers produced Colossus No. 1 from March to December 1943 and installed it in Blechili Park in January 1944.
With a huge number of tube components, the Colossus was the world’s first programmable fully electronic computer. It was able to perform various kinds of logical operations by receiving input from paper tape, but it was not a Turing machine. One Colossus No. 1 and nine Colossus No. 2 were produced, but all remained classified as military until the 1970s. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill also ordered the complete destruction of the end-of-life,
Colossus computer in order not to disclose to the public that it could decrypt Lorentz during the Cold War. Therefore, the existence of the Colossus computer has not been included in the history of the computer for a while.
A Colossus that has now been restored is on display at Blechili Park.
Research in the United States for World First Computer
In 1944, IBM and Harvard University’s Howard E.Kin created a digital-electronic computer mark-I that can perform addition three times in one second using a relay.
Mark-One embodies Babbage’s analysis engine design concept with relays, switches, and motors, and features. An automatic sequential control method that is controlled by punched paper tape made of 3,000 relays and gears. However, due to mechanical constraints, the processing speed was slow.
Honeywell builds the world’s most powerful quantum computer
When it comes to quantum computers, there’s a tendency to think of companies like Google and IBM as big companies in the field, but competition can soon be fierce. Honeywell said one day it will unveil a quantum computer that is at least twice as powerful as the current device in the next three months.
It takes a bit of context to subdivide that claim. As the protocol points out, most companies talk about qubits when talking about the capabilities of computers. For example, Sycamore, a computer that claimed to have achieved a quantum advantage last year, had 53 cubits. Honeywell instead uses metrics called quantum quantities to describe the machine’s function. IBM invented this term and here is how to define it.
Quantum Volume takes into account the number of qubits, connection, and gate and measurement errors circuit compiler All improvements as long as it progresses at a similar speed, Quantum Volume.”
The important thing to understand
The important thing here is that you want to measure the performance of your computer by grasping different parts of the quantum volume as a whole. Raw cubits are important for computation, but the way they interact with each other is also important. For example, the lower the error rate that a qubit produces, the higher the score
Honeywell claimed that the upcoming computer’s quantum volume was over 64. IBM recently announced a 28-qubit computer that built this quantity in 32 quarters. This is thanks to an innovation in 2015 that developed a technique for capturing electrically charged atoms in a superimposed state using a laser.
As exciting as Honeywell’s work, it’s best not to get too excited until the company properly describes the computer. Last year, Google announced that it had achieved quantum superiority, causing conflicting hype and controversy. In particular, IBM said the company was “irresponsible” based on the fact that Google built Sycamore to solve one specific equation.
That said, most other companies are at least optimistic about what Honeywell managed. For example, IBM’s research team said in a protocol, “Honeywell’s paper shows a new advance in programmable trapped ion quantum systems.” The company also gained Microsoft approval by announcing a partnership to allow Azure clients to access Honeywell’s quantum computers.
“Top secret of quantum computers.” Ilia’s Khan, CEO of Cambridge Quantum Computing (CQC), called Honeywell’s efforts to build the world’s most powerful quantum computer. In a game where most major players are competing for attention, Honeywell has been trying quietly over the past few years (according to strict NDA). However, the company has made a breakthrough in the next three months to launch the world’s most powerful quantum computer.
Honeywell also announced that it has made strategic investments in CQC and Zapata Computing, focusing on the software side of quantum computing. The company also partnered with JP Morgan Chase to develop a quantum algorithm using Honeywell’s quantum computers. The company also recently announced an alliance with Microsoft.
Honeywell has long built complex control systems that power the world’s largest industrial sites. It is thanks to that kind of experience that it is now possible to create an advanced ion trap that is at the heart of the effort.
The company claims in the paper accompanying the announcement that this ion trap could achieve a much longer decoherence time than its competitors.
“It starts with the legacy Honeywell had to work on,” said Tony Utley, president of Honeywell Quantum Solutions. “And we had solutions related to the integration of complex control systems because of our business in the aerospace and defense, oil and gas, and chemical and materials industries, which gave us everything that underlies quantum computing. It’s very different from computing, it needs ultra-fast vacuum system function, it needs cryogenic function, it needs precision control, it needs laser and optical function, it needs magnetism and vibration stability, and we have our own foundry So it was literally possible to design a computer system configuration from a trap.”